Harnessing local biodiversity for sustainable energy: A comparative study of Detarium microcarpum, Citrullus lanatus, and Sclerocarya birrea seeds oils for biodiesel production

Usman Ibrahim Tafida 1, 2, *, Kekule Augustine 1, 3 and Latifa Abdulazeez 1

1 Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Abubakar Tafawa Balewa University, Gubi Campus, 740102, Bauchi, Nigeria.
2 Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Kano University of Science and Technology, Wudil, 713101, Kano, Nigeria.
3 Chemistry Department, College of Science and Mathematics, Wright State University, 45435, Dayton, Ohio, USA.
Research Article
World Journal of Advanced Research and Reviews, 2024, 22(03), 1437–1443
Article DOI: 10.30574/wjarr.2024.22.3.1788
Publication history: 
Received on 05 May 2024; revised on 19 June 2024; accepted on 22 June 2024
This paper examines the viability of biodiesel as a sustainable alternative to diesel fuel, with a focus on the use of non-edible plant oils from Northern Nigeria. The study investigates the extraction and characterization of oils from Detarium microcarpum, Citrullus lanatus, and Sclerocarya birrea, assessing their physicochemical properties and suitability for biodiesel production. The research involved sourcing fruits locally, extracting oils using a Soxhlet extractor, and determining oil yield and key properties such as specific gravity, acid value, and cetane number. The biodiesel production process included pre-treatment and transesterification, with the final product undergoing characterization to meet ASTM-D standards.
The study found significant variability in the physicochemical properties of the seeds and seed oils, which influences their potential applications. Citrullus lanatus and Sclerocarya birrea showed higher oil yields and favorable properties for biodiesel production, while Detarium microcarpum’s high-quality oil may be better suited for specialty markets. The findings highlight Northern Nigeria’s untapped potential for biodiesel production and the need for comprehensive studies on local feedstocks.
The research emphasizes the importance of comparative analyses and detailed research on the availability, viability, and cost of different feedstocks specific to Northern Nigeria. Developing a biodiesel industry could contribute to economic growth, sustainability, and energy security in the region.
Biodiesel; Transesterification; Renewable Energy; Detarium microcarpumCitrullus lanatusSclerocarya birrea
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