Evaluation of the potential of activated palm fruit bunch biochar (aPFBB) on groundwater hardness reduction

Godwin Nkwuda Nwonumara 1, *, Calistus Kelechi Ukwueze 1, Rosemary Adamma Okoh 1, Felix Sunday Nworie 2 and Okechukwu Idumah Okogwu 1

Department of Applied Biology, Faculty of Science, Ebonyi State University, Abakaliki, Nigeria.
Department of Industrial Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Ebonyi State University, Abakaliki, Nigeria.
Research Article
World Journal of Advanced Research and Reviews, 2024, 22(03), 2183–2190
Article DOI: 10.30574/wjarr.2024.22.3.1688
Publication history: 
Received on 22 May 2024; revised on 27 June 2024; accepted on 29 June 2024
The potential of aPFBB in water hardness reduction was evaluated in 25 borehole water samples collected from five residential clusters within Abakaliki, Ebonyi State, Nigeria. During sample collection for determination of the hardness level in the laboratory, temperature, pH, TDS, and Conductivity were measured using standard equipment and procedures. One hundred milliliter of water samples from each borehole was treated with 1 gram of aPFBB in the laboratory and the physico-chemical parameters as well as hardness level measured after 1 hour and 24 hours. The results showed that mean total hardness decreased from 1100.00 mg/L to 503.00 mg/L in samples from PRESCO cluster. Percentage reduction in total hardness was highest (67.11%) in samples from CAS after 24 hours of treatment. The study revealed that aPFBB had good potential for water hardness reduction, hence could be used as alternative to the existing methods because it is cheaper and safer.
Activated Biochar; Abakaliki; Borehole; Water Hardness
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