Etiology of bloodstream infections among pediatric patients in Bauchi metropolis, north-east Nigeria

Torkwase Janet Aondofa 1, 2, 3, 5, *, Ahmed Faruk Umar 2, 5 and Yusuf Alhaji Suleiman 4, 5

1 Department of Microbiology, Joseph Saawuan Tarka University, Makurdi, Nigeria.
2 Department of Microbiology, Abubakar Tafawa Balewa University, Bauchi, Nigeria.
3 Department of Microbiology, Abubakar Tafawa Balewa University Teaching Hospital, Bauchi, Nigeria.
4 Department of Human Anatomy, Abubakar Tafawa Balewa University, Bauchi, Nigeria.
5 Molecular Genetics and Infectious Disease Laboratory, Abubakar Tafawa Balewa University, Bauchi, Nigeria.
Research Article
World Journal of Advanced Research and Reviews, 2024, 23(01), 410–414
Article DOI10.30574/wjarr.2024.23.1.1784
Publication history: 
Received on 04 May 2024; revised on 01 July 2024; accepted on 03 July 2024
Background: The prevalence of bacterial infections in children is increasing by the day, this gives a cause for concern regarding the high rate of bloodstream infection (BSI) and associated mortality in developing countries. Physical signs and symptoms may be useful but have limited specificity which would be addressed with bacteriologic blood culture. This study was aimed at determining the etiologic agents of bacteremia and the prevalence in pediatric patients aged 0-5years.
Methods: Two hundred and sixty- two (262) blood samples were analyzed from children aged 0-5years, attending hospitals within Bauchi metropolis with features suggestive of septicemia. Samples were collected under aseptic conditions and automated blood culture was done on BacT/ALERT 3D Biomerieux, Germany. Positive blood culture was sub-cultured on blood agar and MacConkey agar and identified on Vitek2 (bioMѐrieux, France) automated system after gram staining. Changes in pathogen distribution according to age and gender were determined by the chi-square test and statistical significance confirmed if a two-tailed p-value was not more than 0.01.
Results: Bacteria was isolated in 119 (45.4) of samples with highest rate among neonates 54(45.3). Staphylococcus aureus 21 (17.6) was the most predominant organism isolated across all age groups with a higher occurrence in patients<1year old. A chi-square test of independence for culture positivity and age/gender at p<.01 was not significant
Conclusion: In this study both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria are implicated in pediatric bloodstream infections. Staphylococcus aureus was the most predominant organism followed by members of the Enterobacterales (Enterobacter spp, Klebsiella spp and Escherichia coli).
Bloodstream infections; Pediatrics; Bacteria; Staphylococcus aureus
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