The correlation between characteristics and pregnant women’s knowledge about prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV in Surabaya: A cross-sectional study

Nadhifa Alya Hamidah 1, Dewi Setyowati 1 *, Galuh Zediara 1, Noorlaila Ainunnissa 1 and Nastiti Intan Permata Sari 2

1 Midwifery Study Programme, Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Airlangga, Surabaya, Indonesia.
2 Universitas Pertahanan RI, Center for Biomedical Research, Research Organization for Health, National Research and Innovation Agency (BRIN), Indonesia.
Research Article
World Journal of Advanced Research and Reviews, 2024, 22(03), 796–803
Article DOI: 10.30574/wjarr.2024.22.3.1764
Publication history: 
Received on 04 May 2024; revised on 11 June 2024; accepted on 13 June 2024
Background: HIV continues to be a serious global public health concern, having taken 40.4 million lives to date and continuing to spread throughout all nations. By the end of 2022, there were projected to be 39 million HIV-positive individuals. The annual incidence of HIV-positive pregnant women is on the rise in Indonesia. In 2021, 4396 pregnant women were diagnosed with HIV, and this number increased to 8769 in 2022. Pregnant women's behaviours to prevent HIV transmission from mother to child are mainly determined by their level of knowledge. This study was carried out to determine the level of pregnant women’s knowledge and find out the relationship between the characteristics and the knowledge of the pregnant women about the prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) in Surabaya.
Methods: This is quantitative research with a cross-sectional approach. The number of respondents involved was 235 people. The inclusion criteria for this study were pregnant women in the 1st, 2nd, and 3rd trimesters who attended antenatal care at Community Health Centres in Surabaya. Meanwhile, the exclusion criteria for this study were pregnant women with disabilities. This research was conducted at the Putat Jaya, Morokrembangan, Perak Timur, Pucangsewu, Kalirungkut, and Tanah Kali Kedinding Community Health Centres in Surabaya during August–October 2023. Samples were collected using a purposive sampling technique. An overview of knowledge is known through a questionnaire. The findings have been calculated using the Spearman and Chi square statistical tests.
Results: According to the findings, less than half (49.4%) have sufficient knowledge of PMTCT. The result of the statistical test revealed that the correlation between age and knowledge has a p-value of 0.735, education and knowledge have a p-value of 0.066, information sources and knowledge have a p-value of 0.087, gravidity and knowledge have a p-value of 1, and occupation and knowledge have a p-value of 0.308, ethnicity and knowledge have a p-value of 0.104, monthly income and knowledge have a p-value of 0.278.
Conclusion: The findings revealed that less than half of respondents have sufficient knowledge of PMTCT. Knowledge was unrelated to age, education, source of information, gravidity, occupation, ethnicity, and monthly income.
Characteristics; Knowledge; Pregnant women; PMTCT; HIV; Surabaya
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